Was A. W. Tozer a Mystic?

Aiden Wilson Tozer (1897 to 1963), was a Preacher with the Christian Missionary Alliance denomination, an author, and a magazine editor.

Aiden’s family moved from Pennsylvania to Ohio, where Tozer, at the age of 15, worked at the tire companies to support his family. Several sources commented that, Aiden, 17, was on his way home from work when he overheard a street preacher say: “If you don’t know how to be saved…just call on God, and He will hear you.” Aiden, it is reported, returned home, climbed into the attic, and heeded the preacher’s advice.

In 1919, five years after his conversion, and without a high school education, twenty-two year old Aiden Tozer started pastoring a Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA) Church, thus beginning forty-four years of ministry associated with the C&MA Church. Tozer received Honorary Doctorates from Houghton College and Wheaton College.

“Tozer’s real strength came from his prayer life. He often commented, ‘As a man prays, so is he.’ His entire ministry of preaching and writing flowed out of fervent prayer…

“A major concern of Tozer was the lack of spirituality among professing Christians of his day…Speaking about the frenzied pace set by religious leaders leaving no room for unhurried reflection and meditation, he cautioned, ‘Our religious activities should be ordered in such a way as to leave plenty of
time for the cultivation of the fruits of solitude and silence.'”

“In daily life Tozer’s sense of God enveloped him in reverence and adoration.
His preoccupation was to practice the presence of God—to borrow
a phrase popularized by mystic Brother Lawrence whom Tozer delighted to read…

“It is not possible to understand Tozer’s life and ministry apart from his
pursuit of God…

“‘Worship,’ he wrote, ‘is to feel in your heart and express in some appropriate manner a humbling but delightful sense of admiring awe, astonished wonder
and overpowering love in the presence of that most ancient Mystery,
that Majesty which philosophers call the First Cause but which
we call Our Father in Heaven…'”

“Tozer’s hunger for God led him to study the Christian mystics. Their knowledge of God and absorbing love for Him profoundly attracted Tozer. They were spirits kindred to his own.

‘These people know God,’ he would say, ‘and I want to know
what they know about God and how they came to know it.’
He so identified with their struggles and triumphs that people
began referring to him, also, as a mystic, a designation to
which he never objected.

“Tozer’s list of these ‘friends of God’ grew with the years, and nothing delighted him more than to uncover a long forgotten devotional writer. He eagerly introduced these newly discovered mystics to his friends, bringing many of them into public awareness.”

At least two of the books that Tozer wrote are regarded as Christian classics:
The Pursuit of God and The Knowledge of the Holy.

Tozer’s response to being called a mystic

    “Some of my friends good-humoredly—and some a little bit severely—have called me a ‘mystic.’ Well I’d like to say this about any mysticism I may suppose to have. If an archangel from heaven were to come, and were to start giving me, telling me, teaching me, and giving me instruction, I’d ask him for the text. I’d say, ‘Where’s it say that in the Bible? I want to know.’ And I would insist that it was according to the scriptures, because I do not believe in any extra-scriptural teachings, nor any anti-scriptural teachings, or any sub-scriptural teachings.

    I think we ought to put the emphasis where God puts it, and continue to put it there, and to expound the scriptures, and stay by the scriptures. I wouldn’t—no matter if I saw a light above the light of the sun, I’d keep my mouth shut about it ’til I’d checked with Daniel and Revelation and the rest of the scriptures to see if it had any basis in truth. And if it didn’t, I’d think I’d just eaten something I shouldn’t, and I wouldn’t say anything about it. Because I don’t believe in anything that is unscriptural or that is anti-scripture.”—What Difference Does the Holy Spirit Make?, by A. W. Tozer

The Mystic Spirituality of A. W. Tozer,
a Twentieth-Century Protestant
E. Lynn Harris, 1992
Though much work has been done in the fields of Catholic and Oriental spirituality, Protestant spirituality has been neglected. After a brief biography
of Tozer, this study compares Tozer’s mysticism to thirty-five mystical classics
he recommended, such as John of the Cross, Teresa of Avila, etc.

The focus is on the nature of contemporary Protestant mysticism and the examination of a twentieth-century figure operating within a very conservative section of Protestantism who was influenced by mystical prayer. The position which Tozer reached may be of value to others also having to cope with the pressures of contemporary life in a metropolitan environment.

Lamps on the Candelabrum: Five Evangelical Mystics
by David, A J. Seargent MA PhD FRAS
This eBook gives a brief account of the lives and basic teachings of five Christian teachers who could be described as “evangelical mystics”. They are A. W. Tozer, Watchman Nee, the Indian “Christian mystic” Sadhu Sundar Singh, Pakistani visionary, Gulshan Esther, and Welsh evangelist, Selwyn Hughes.

Related Posts on Just the BOOK
Conclusion of the Carmelite Order Posts or Why I am Writing about A W Tozer
A. W. Tozer, the Mystic, Part 1
Tozer the Mystic, Part 2, What is wrong with Pursuing God?
A. W. Tozer, The Pursuit of God and Augustine
A. W. Tozer, The Pursuit of God, von Hugel, Bernard of Clairvaux, and Cloud of Unknowing
A. W. Tozer, The Pursuit of God, the Chinese sage, Laotze, and Faber, the Catholic Hymnwriter
A. W. Tozer, The Pursuit of God, Thomas a Kempis, and Nicholas of Cusa
Unbiblical and/or mystical phrases, in The Pursuit of God by A. W. Tozer
What is so appealing about the The Pursuit of God by Tozer?
JTB series: Scripture compared with some phrases in The Pursuit of God


The Thirteenth Century: The English King and the Pope

“In the Middle Ages amidst the nations of Europe, two powers contended for supremacy—the Pope and the King.

“The Pope, as the Vicar of Jesus Christ, first assumed the title of Universal Bishop, and afterwards claimed temporal dominion over all the monarchs of Christendom. Long and fierce struggles ensued in consequence of this claim and much blood was shed. In some countries the strife was carried on for centuries, but in England it was happily terminated at an early period. The great man to whose wisdom, patriotism, and piety the nation owes this happy result, was
John Wicliffe.

“In the early years of the thirteenth century, the kingdom of England became subject to the Pope. A dispute had arisen between King John and the canons of Canterbury concerning the election of an archbishop for that diocese, in place of Hubert, who died in 1205. Both the canons and the king appealed to the Pope, and sent agents to Rome. The pontifical chair was then filled by Innocent III, who like his predecessor, Gregory VII, was vigorously striving to subordinate the rights and powers of princes to the Papal See, and to take into his own hands all the ecclesiastical appointments of the Christian nations.

“Innocent annulled both the election of the canons and also that of the king,
and caused his own nominee, Cardinal Langton, to be chosen to the see of Canterbury. But more than this, he claimed the right for the Pontiff of
appointing to this seat of dignity for all coming time…” p. 9–10

“King John braved this state of things for two years, when Innocent pronounced sentence of excommunication upon him; absolving his subjects from their allegiance, and offering the crown of England to Philip Augustus, King of France. Philip collected a mighty armament, and prepared to cross the Channel and invade the territories of the excommunicated king.

“At this time, John was on bad terms with his barons on account of his many vices, and dared not depend upon their support. He saw the danger in which he stood, and …determined upon an unconditional surrender to the Pope…He then ‘resigned England and Ireland to God, to St. Peter and St. Paul and to Pope Innocent and his successors in the apostolic chair,’ agreeing to hold these dominions as feudatory of the Church of Rome, by the annual payment of a thousand marks…”

On May 15, 1213, “…The King of England kneeling before the legate of the Pope, and taking the crown from his head, offering it to Pandolf, saying, ‘Here I resign the crown of the realm of England into the Pope’s hand, Innocent III, and put me wholly in his mercy and ordinance.’

“…The barons determined that they would never be the slaves of a Pope, and unsheathing their swords, they vowed to maintain the ancient liberties of England or die in the attempt. On the 15th of June, 1215, they compelled John to sign Magna Charta at Runnymede, and thus in effect to tell Innocent that he revoked his vow of vassalage, and took back the kingdom which he had laid at his feet. The Pope was furious. He issued a bull declaring that he annulled the charter, and proclaiming all its obligations and guarantees void.

“From this reign England may date her love of liberty and dread of popery…” p.11, 12

“But while feeling a dread of thepapacy, the people still held to the doctrines of Rome. Enveloped in ignorance and sunk in social degradation and vice, they had not the Scriptures to enlighten their path. The Bible was a sealed book. Freedom of conscience was denied, and the religion of the country consisted in outward ceremonials appealing to the senses but not influencing the heart…” p. 13

“In this age of liberty it is difficult to imagine the arbitrary power exercised by the popes of the Middle Ages. In England during the fourteenth century a battle was constantly being carried on between the King and his Parliament on the one side, and the Papal Court on the other.” p.44

“In Wicliffe’s time, it was a maxim that the reading of the Bible was injurious to the laity, and accordingly the priests forbade it…” p. 77

Wicliffe’s “idea was to give the whole Bible in the vernacular to the people of England, so that every man in the realm might read in the tongue wherein he was born the wonderful works of God.” p. 77

Wicliffe’s “great aim was to bring men back to the Bible. He exalted it as the one great authority before which all should bow…” p. 100

excerpts from: John Wicliffe: The Morning Star of the Reformation
by D. J. Deane, sixth edition, excerpts

This information is for my post:
The Real Presence in the Eucharist: Evangelization of America through Politics

Chuck Colson, The Family, Born Again

Chuck Colson
Born Again: What Really Happened to the White House Hatchet Man
Charles W. Colson, 1977
Spire Books Fleming H. Revell Company, Old Tappan, New Jersey

“…While accompanying my wife at her Roman Catholic church one Sunday, Patty flipped open the hymnal, smiled and nudged me…the title was on that page: the hymn was “Born Again.” p. 11

“Also there’s a man in Washington you should meet,” he continued, “name of Doug Coe. He gets people together for Christian fellowship—prayer breakfasts and things like that. I’ll ask him to contact you.” p. 115

“We had come together for me to meet Senator Hughes and the others. They were also to expose me to the nebulous concept which Doug had called fellowship…” p. 149

“In late September Hughes, Quie, Purcell, Doug, and myself began gathering for breakfast each Monday morning at 8:30 at Fellowship House. A plain, French Provincial building that might easily pass for just another of the large old residences on Embassy Row, Fellowship House is operated by a group of men and women volunteers who are followers of Jesus Christ.” p. 154

(at a prayer breakfast December 6) p. 160, 161
“…We had started to eat when the door swung open and the chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, Arthur Burns entered.”

“What is Arthur Burns doing here?” I asked in astonishment to the man on my left, Father John McLaughlin, the Jesuit priest and staff speech writer for the President…

“Arthur is a regular particpant in these breakfasts,” he told me.

“But he’s Jewish,” I protested…I dreaded the confrontation

“He is not only Jewish,” McLaughlin went on, “he is the chairman of this breakfast meeting.”

“It was the evening before the National Prayer Breakfast in late January that Al Quie, Graham Purcell, Doug Coe, Harold Hughes and I met for prayer and dinner in the Capitol with Billy Graham and Senator Mark Hatfield.” p. 182

“Secretary “Laird, I learned was a regular participant in a small congressional fellowship which later included among others the then-Vice President Gerald Ford, Al Quie, and House Minority Leader John Rhodes…” p. 189

“The words of the indictment were still ringing in my ears the following Monday as I drove to Fellowship House for our early morning meeting…p. 208

“For me it seemed the thing to do, Chuck. I looked at prison as a cleansing time—and for self-examination…”—Bud Krogh, after getting out of prison, p. 244

“Two of the men in the Fellowship, Paul Temple and Winston Weaver, made available their vacation homes (in Spain and the Virginia mountains respectively) to Patty and me… p. 346

More on Paul Temple

Paul Temple, mentioned at the end of “Born Again”, was a supporter of “The Family” and also financially supports the Institute of Noetic Sciences.

The Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS) was co-founded in 1973 by former astronaut Edgar Mitchell and industrialist Paul N. Temple to encourage and conduct research and education programs on mind-body relationships for the purpose of expanding “human possibility by investigating aspects of reality—mind, consciousness, and spirit.”

Institute programs include research in what they call “extended human capacities,” “integral health and healing,” and “emerging worldviews”. This includes research into spiritual energy, meditation, consciousness, alternative healing, spirituality, human potential, psychic abilities and life after death, among others.

This information is for my post:
The Real Presence in the Eucharist: Evangelization of America through Politics

Presidential Candidates and “the Family” (Fellowship Foundation)

The Family (Fellowship Foundation) and Presidential Candidates
How Hillary Clinton turned herself into the consummate Washington player
By Joshua Green, November 2006, Atlantic Monthly Take Two: Hillary’s Choice

    Of the many realms of power on Capitol Hill, the least understood may be the lawmakers’ prayer group…

    “…But among the prayer groups, one holds special status: a tight-knit gathering of about a dozen senators which still meets every Wednesday morning for prayer and discussion, led by Douglas Coe himself. Each week, someone starts the meeting by giving personal testimony, secure in the support of the audience…

    The roster of regular participants has included such notable conservative names as Brownback, Santorum, Nickles, Enzi, and Inhofe. Then, in 2001, just after the new class of senators was sworn in, another name was added to the list: Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Hillary’s Prayer: Hillary Clinton’s Religion and Politics
Kathryn Joyce and Jeff Sharlet 9/1/2007

    For 15 years, Hillary Clinton has been part of a secretive religious group that seeks to bring Jesus back to Capitol Hill. Is she triangulating—or living her faith?

    Through all of her years in Washington, Clinton has been an active participant in conservative Bible study and prayer circles that are part of a secretive Capitol Hill group known as the Fellowship. Her collaborations with right-wingers such as Senator Sam Brownback (R-Kan.) and former Senator Rick Santorum (R-Pa.) grow in part from that connection. “A lot of evangelicals would see that as just cynical exploitation,” says the Reverend Rob Schenck, a former leader of the militant anti-abortion group Operation Rescue who now ministers to decision makers in Washington. “I don’t…there is a real good that is infected in people when they are around Jesus talk, and open Bibles, and prayer.”

Samuel Dale Brownback

    Sam Brownback, born 1956, is the senior United States senator from the U.S. state of Kansas. During 2007, he was a Republican candidate in the 2008 Presidential election.

    Brownback told Rolling Stone that he had moved from mainline Protestantism to evangelicalism before his 2002 conversion to Catholicism, and that in 1994 he became involved with The Fellowship, a conservative Christian U.S. political organization. Raised as a Methodist, Brownback later joined a nondenominational evangelical church, Topeka Bible Church, which he still regularly attends, even though in 2002, he converted to Catholicism. He joined the Church through Opus Dei priest Father C. John McCloskey in Washington DC. [slate.com]

    Brownback was a cosponsor of the Constitution Restoration Act, which would have limited the power of federal courts to rule on church/state issues. Brownback told Rolling Stone that he chairs the Senate Values Action Team, an off-the-record weekly meeting of representatives from religious conservative organizations.

NBC News Exclusive: Political ties to a secretive religious group
April 03, 2008 By Andrea Mitchell and Jim Popkin, NBC News

    Besides the presidents and first ladies—Bill and Hillary Clinton attended in 1997—the one constant presence at the National Prayer Breakfast has been Douglas Coe. Although he’s not an ordained minister, the 79-year-old Coe is the most important religious leader you’ve never seen or heard.

    But Doug Coe is well known to scores of senators in both parties—and many faiths—including Sam Brownback, Mike Enzi, Mark Pryor and Bill Nelson. They go to small weekly Senate prayer groups that Coe attends.

    Participants tell NBC News that so have senators John McCain, Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton, which those campaigns confirm.

This is not a Religion Column: Biblical Capitalism
By Jeff Sharlet, October 1, 2008

    “…Much has been made of Palin’s Pentecostalism but her links to The Family go unnoticed.

    “Palin is an outsider moving in, rising up from the ranks of popular fundamentalism to join the movement’s leadership cadre.

    “In Alaska, Palin has for the last two years presided over a Governor’s Prayer Breakfast—an offshoot of the Fellowship’s National Prayer Breakfast in Washington—which declares that its mission ‘is to reaffirm and promote in a Christ-like manner the idea that God has a purpose for and authority over human events.’ Franklin Graham, Billy Graham’s far more militant son, has been the keynote speaker the last two years.

This information is for my post:
The Real Presence in the Eucharist: Evangelization of America through Politics

Some National Prayer Breakfasts 2007–2009

The National Prayer Breakfast February 2008
Six heads of state attended the US 2008 National Prayer Breakfast, along with Members of the European Parliament; United Nations diplomats; European, Asian, African and Latin American politicians; missionaries working in various countries; U.S. and foreign business leaders; and students.

    Minnesotan to Speak at National Prayer Breakfast
    Ward Brehm, a Minnesotan who chairs the United States African Development Foundation, will deliver the keynote speech at the annual National Prayer Breakfast on Thursday.

    He will follow in the footsteps of past speakers such as rock star Bono and Mother Teresa. President Bush also plans to address the gathering, as does Sen. Amy Klobuchar, D-Minn., who will deliver a prayer for world leaders.

    The U.S.-African Development Foundation is a government agency that makes direct investments in Africa, and whose goal is to help the poor through business development and job creation. Brehm is also chairman of the Brehm Group in Minneapolis, a national insurance consulting firm…

    This year’s breakfast is expected to bring about 4,000 people from 140 countries, said Sen. Ken Salazar, D-Colo., who is co-chairing the breakfast with Sen. Mike Enzi, R-Wyo. Salazar said Brehm was selected because of his work in helping the poor and downtrodden in Africa.

    McCain, Lieberman at National Prayer Breakfast
    Katherine Rosman reports on politics and prayer.

    A crowd of 4,000, including President Bush and First Lady Laura Bush, lawmakers, judges, heads of state and others from more than 100 countries, came together for coffee, conversation and spiritual contemplation at the annual National Prayer Breakfast held
    this morning in Washington, D.C.

    The biggest stir came when Republican presidential front-runner, Sen. John McCain, made a conspicuous entrance with Sen. Joseph Lieberman, the Democrat-turned-independent senator from Connecticut.

    Sen. Mike Enzi (R., Wyo.) and Sen. Ken Salazar (D., Colo.) were co-hosts.

    The mood was relaxed. Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D., Minn.), in her prayer for world leaders, offered a blessing uttered in sweaty yoga classes around the world: “Namaste.” Adm. Michael Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, remarked that he had thought of the importance of prayer just Wednesday when he testified before Congress. And as contemporary Christian singer Michael W. Smith sat at a piano and performed “Above All,” Bush subtly bopped his head in time with the music.

    Remarks by the President at National Prayer Breakfast Feb 7, 2008
    “…Every President since Dwight Eisenhower has attended the National Prayer Breakfast—and I am really proud to carry on that tradition. It’s an important tradition…The people in this room come from many different walks of faith. Yet we share one clear conviction: We believe that the Almighty hears our prayers—and answers those who seek Him…

    In prayer, we grow in gratitude and thanksgiving….We give thanks for the God who made us in His image—and redeemed us in His love.

National Catholic Prayer Breakfasts
Breakfast with Bush
National Catholic Prayer Breakfast Spawning Events Worldwide
Joseph Cella is amazed by the success of the National Catholic Prayer Breakfast he founded and presides over, but he’s not astonished by it…

“At its core, this event is about prayer and fellowship…Heretofore there just really hasn’t been a forum for Catholics to gather together in solidarity and celebrate the Mass and enjoy wonderful fellowship…

“We had speakers on topics from theology—Scott Hahn and Father [Richard John] Neuhaus—to such topics as entertainment media, Raymond Arrowyo was here from EWTN, we had Steve McEveety, producer of The Passion of the Christ, and [filmmaker] Joseph Campo.

“But we do want to educate Catholics about public policy issues. William Saunders from the Family Research Council was here, and Carter Snead from Notre Dame, for instance.

“…it’s President Bush’s third year in a row attending…”

National Catholic Prayer Breakfast 2008
The 5th Annual National Catholic Prayer Breakfast

April 17 & 18, 2008, Washington, D.C.

Thursday April 17, 2008
5:30 PM  Mass at St. Matthew’s Cathedral

Friday April 18, 2008
7:15 AM Rosary

7:45 AM Breakfast is served              

10:00 AM Live broadcast Pope Benedict’s Address to UN Gen. Assembly

10:45 AM Michael Novak, author, lecturer, winner of Templeton Prize
11:45 AM  Marcus Grodi, star of EWTN, noted lecturer and author
Remarks by the President at the National Catholic Prayer Breakfast 2008
Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington, D.C. 

The President:
“…I’m proud to be here with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Roberts…This has been a joyous week…The streets were lined with people that were so thrilled that the Holy Father was here. And it was such a privilege to welcome this good man to the United States… 

“…Together, we’ve worked to strengthen America’s lifelines of learning—including our nation’s Catholic schools. The Catholic Church has a proud educational tradition dating back centuries, and one of the Holy Father’s priorities has been maintaining this tradition in the United States…

”In my State of the Union address this January, I proposed a new $300 million program called Pell Grants for Kids…next week we’re having a White House Summit on Inner-City Children and Faith-Based Schools.

Together, we’ve worked to foster a culture of tolerance and peace…I strongly support the Pope’s call for religious freedom around the world… 

“…I’ve been a strong believer in faith-based and community based effort to bring healing and hope…in 2006, 3,000 direct federal grants totaling more than $2 billion were made to faith-based organizations—including many Catholic organizations…

Prayer Breakfast Net
Goal—reach every USA city with a well planned Prayer Breakfast.
Strategy—Prayer Breakfasts have shown to be highly effective at reaching into our community and impacting our leaders. Leaders desire to come, get involved and experience a fresh reminder of our country’s Spiritual Heritage.

Prayer and patriotism have united our country. A well-planned Prayer Breakfast can pull your city and community together. 

Politicians, professionals, and business leaders are eager to attend a well-planned Prayer Breakfast. Built on local leadership and Non-Denominational.

Lithuanian National Prayer Breakfast, 3/10/2008

Canada’s National Prayer Breakfast 2009

This information is for my post:
The Real Presence in the Eucharist: Evangelization of America through Politics

History of the Fellowship Foundation

The following Timeline is mainly from information from the Records of the Fellowship Foundation, Collection 459, the Billy Graham Center Archives.

Historical Timeline
The Family was founded in Seattle by a Norwegian immigrant, Abraham Vereide, who was a Methodist conference evangelist and former associate general director of Goodwill Industries. 

Abraham organized Christian prayer breakfasts for politicians and businessmen that included anti-Communism and anti-union discussions. The month of evangelistic meetings Mr. Vereide held in San Francisco, included regular breakfast prayer meetings of business leaders at the Pacific Union Club

Vereide pulled together a group of local businessmen to pray about perceived IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) and Socialist subversion and corruption in Seattle, Washington’s municipal government.

The group began to meet regularly and expanded to include government officials, labor leaders, etc. Other groups developed throughout the state, loosely coordinated by Vereide…

209 prayer breakfast groups had been organized throughout Seattle.

Prayer breakfast for new governor Arthur Langlie attended by 300 men from all over the state of Washington. Vereide traveled throughout the Pacific Northwest and later around the country, helping to develop similar groups.

The idea of the groups, which were nondenominational, was to bring together civic and business leaders informally to share a meal, study the Bible and develop relationships of trust and support and to promote Christian principles.

Vereide talked with members of Congress about their starting a regular fellowship group.

U. S. House prayer breakfast group started.

Sixty breakfast groups by this time in major cities around the country, including Chicago, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Vancouver, Washington.

U. S. Senate prayer breakfast group started.

National Committee for Christian Leadership (NCCL) incorporated to provide a minimal coordination for the movement; office moved from Seattle to Chicago.

Name changed to International Christian Leadership (ICL).

Vereide met Mrs. Marian (Hoffman) Johnson on a visit to Washington. She later opened her large home at 6523 Massachusetts Avenue to the ICL for conferences and social gatherings. This became the group’s first Fellowship House.

Two important participants throughout the group’s work in Washington were James Bell and Paul Temple.

At the end of the year, Vereide family moved to a Washington, DC suburb and the NCCL opened its office in the city at 744 Jackson Place, N.W.

Vereide’s Prayer Breakfast Movement was formally incorporated as the National Committee for Christian Leadership (NCCL). Its headquarters were in Chicago.

In 1944, while Vereide’s friends in Germany were being pummeled by the Allies, especially by the Soviet Red Army, NCCL changed its name to International Christian Leadership (ICL), an indication that Vereide saw an immediate need to extend his influence abroad in the wake of a certain Nazi defeat.

Fellowship Foundation incorporated to accept donations and property…

1/19—First prayer breakfast in Wash., DC, for members of the US Congress.

4/16/1945—A special prayer meeting of government leaders was held to pray for the nation after President Roosevelt’s death. Group was led by Senators H. Alexander Smith, Lister Hill and publisher David Lawrence.

1/13-16/1946—Representatives from the breakfast groups, the Gideons, the Christian Businessmen’s Committee and others met for a prayer conference on national needs.

Vereide visited Europe and talked with Christian there about beginning ICL groups in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, France and Germany. ICL agreed to cooperate with the British Victory Fellowship in Great Britain.

Gustav Adolf Gedat of Germany was deeply involved in the activities of the groups in Europe from this time until his death in 1971. Throughout the years, one important aspect of the movement was the travel of its associates throughout the world to establish personal contacts with leaders in most countries of the world.

January 1947
Four day conference in Washington, DC resulted in the formation of International Council for Christian Leadership (ICCL), an umbrella group for the various national fellowships. There were representatives from the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Norway, Hungary, Egypt and China.

ICL’s budget for 1949: $32,700.

Wallace Haines was sent to Europe by Vereide to represent ICL at a gathering of German Christians at Castle Mainau. Haines became the European representative of ICL.

ICL’s budget for 1951—$34,000.

Karl Leyasmeyer became the ICL’s field representative in 1950…Other ICL field representative in the 1950s…Wallace Haines, and Richard Halverson. The budget for ICL for 1952 was $39,000.

5/22-25/1952—International Conference of ICCL in Noordwijk, Netherlands.

First Presidential Prayer Breakfast held in the US, 2/5/1953
Joint conference of the ICL and ICCL held from February 5-9. Senator Frank Carlson, an advisor to President Eisenhower and a participant in the ICL’s program, played a prominent part in helping to organize this meeting…

The members of Congress involved in the congressional prayer breakfasts remained the prime organizers of the annual Presidential Prayer Breakfasts, which included people involved in prayer groups in other sections of the legislative, judicial and executive branches, as well as ambassadors, civic leaders from around the country and the world, and many guests not involved in the prayer breakfast movement…

The Presidential Prayer Breakfast was also often called the National Prayer Breakfast and this latter eventually became the official title.

ICCL was formally incorporated as a separate organization in 1953. ICL and ICCL were governed by different board of directors, but there was a coordinating committee consisting of four each from members of ICCL’s board and the ICL’s executive committee. Eventually Fellowship Foundation was created by the two organizations to maintain Fellowship House in Washington, DC as a spiritual service center.

In May, 240 delegates attended the ICCL’s World Conference in Noordwijk, Netherlands. Countries represented included the United States, Germany, France, Great Britain, Finland, Italy, Netherlands, South Korea, Japan, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, and Greece…

ICCL conferences in Cuba and Beirut, Lebanon…

2/3/1955—3rd Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast.

2/2/1956—4th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast.

5/3/1956—Richard Halverson became associate executive director of ICL. In addition, from 1958 on, Halverson was pastor at the Fourth Presbyterian Church of Washington. He served as chaplain of the United Senate from 1981-1995. Throughout his time in Washington, Halverson, along with Vereide and later Douglas Coe, continued to be one of ICL’s most influential leaders, regardless of his title.

9/12-16/1956—Biannual ICCL world conference in Noordwijk, Netherlands.

At this point there were functioning ICCL groups in the United States, South Africa, Madagascar, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kuwait, Lebanon, Turkey, Pakistan, India, South Vietnam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Formosa, South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Switzerland, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Great Britain, Mexico, Honduras, Cuba, and Bermuda.

In 1956, Fellowship House held two hundred Bible studies, receptions and dinners for 1800 guests; Richard Halverson’s Perspective sent to a mailing list of 4000 every week; budget in 1956 – $112,000.

125 groups in 100 American cities. including sixteen in Washington; 125 groups in other countries, including Canada, England, North Ireland, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Switzerland, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Ethiopia, India, South Vietnam, Hong Kong, Formosa, Japan, S. Korea, Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Mexico, Cuba, Bermuda; full-time staff in France, Holland, Hong Kong, Central America.

“…Albert Quie, elected representative from Minnesota, first attended the Congressional Prayer Breakfast and became an important leader in the movement.

12/11/1958—Richard Halverson installed as pastor of the Fourth Presbyterian Church of Springfield, Maryland. He continued to serve as associate executive director of ICL.

3/12/1959—7th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast. Richard Nixon was the principal speaker (Eisenhower was unable to attend).

4/1959—Conference of the European member of ICCL in Strasbourg, France.

Douglas E. Coe, formerly a Christian youth worker in the Pacific Northwest, became ICL’s assistant executive director. Later Coe became associate executive director. Halverson was also an associate executive director.

In 1959 there were 18 breakfast groups in Washington, DC and 200 around the United States.

William C. Jones, a California businessman, served as host of the Presidential Prayer Breakfast in Washington for the first time and continued to be a leader
in ICL until his death in 1971.

1960s and 1970s
For much of its history, particularly in the 1960s and ’70s, the fellowship had a close relationship with the Junior Chamber of Commerce or Jaycees, both the United States and the International branches. The groups planned various joint events together and supplied speakers for each other’s conferences…

8th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast at the Mayflower Hotel. 2/18/1960

5th bi-annual world conference, Noordwijk on the Sea, Netherlands.

1st Governor’s Prayer Breakfast

Combined budget of ICL and ICCL was $100,000.

ICL and ICCL’s budget in 1961 was $150,000.

There was a full-time, paid staff of nine (one based in Paris, another in New Delhi and the rest in Washington).

9th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast. Billy Graham, principal speaker.

10th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast.

5/1962—World Conference in Paris and Versailles, France.

11th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast at Mayflower Hotel.
Billy Graham spoke.

10/24-26/1963, All-India Christian Leadership conference in Calcutta.

12th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast.

6/3/1964, First National Prayer Breakfast in Ottawa, Canada.

6/1964 Bi-annual World Conference held in Bad Godesburg, Germany. Forty-seven nations were represented.

30th anniversary of Prayer groups in celebrated in Seattle Washington, July 5-11 at the first bi-annual national conference. Billy Graham spoke at the concluding banquet.

7/14-17/65—First Tokyo Christian Leadership Conference.

7/10/1965—Abraham Vereide resigned as executive director of ICL and was succeeded by Richard Halverson as acting director…Coe was appointed senior associate executive director.

Frank Carlton’s 1965 nomination of Vereide for the Nobel Peace prize

14th annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast at Shoreham Hotel. Fifteen hundred in attendance. Billy Graham was the principal speaker.

International conference in Cambridge England. 300 delegates.

December 31, 1966. Dr. E. Stanley Jones speaking. Tape 16

15th Annual National Prayer Breakfast, Message by Henry W. Fowler, Secretary of the Treasury.

…Mayor’s Prayer Breakfast in Virginia, with Congressman John Marsh, Douglas Coe, and Richard Halverson speaking; ca. 1967. Tape 18

…Annual Christian Leadership Banquet, with Mark Hatfield as one of the main speakers; 1967. Tape 19

…Faith and Life Seminar at the National Prayer Breakfast and Seminars, Washington, DC; February 3, 1967. Panel members: Dr. Henry Brandt, Mr. Bruce Larson, and Dr. Armond Nicholi… Tape 25

…National Prayer Breakfast and Seminars, Washington, DC; 1967. Side one: …speakers including Winston Weaver, Doug Coe… Richard Halverson; February 2. Tape 27

1/31/1968—16th Annual National Prayer Breakfast.

International conference in Noordwijk, Netherlands, 250 delegates from over 20 counties.

…The 16th annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast in Washington, DC; Introduction by Senator Frank Carlson…New Testament reading by Vice President Hubert H. Humphreyaddress by President Lyndon Johnson
Tape 39

…Seminar on Effective Leadership held in conjunction with the National Prayer Breakfast and Leadership Seminars. Principle speakers were Baron L. de Rosen and Dr. Otto von Habsburg…February 1, 1968. Tape 41

…February 1, 1968. International luncheon held in conjunction with the ICL’s National Prayer Breakfast and International Leadership Seminar. Tape 42

The luncheon was attended by US government officials and government leaders from other countries… invocation by Hernando Garron Salazar, president of the National Assembly of Costa Rica; comments by Gulliermo Sevilla-Sacasa, ambassador of Nicaragua; comments by Senator Frank Carlson;

Old Testament reading by John K. Waller, ambassador of Australia; New Testament reading by Adesanya Hyde, ambassador of Sierra Leone; prayer by Abraham Vereide, address by Vice President Hubert Humphrey, closing prayer by Ibrahim Hussein El-Ahdab, ambassador of Lebanon.

Side 2: 65 minutes. February 2, 1968; Seminar on Leadership and Spiritual Revolution. Panelists included D. Elton Trueblood [Quaker]; Washington, D. C.

… ICL Leadership Breakfast; February 2, 1968…talks by Richard Halverson and Senator Mark Hatfield…Tape 47

17th annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast. Billy Graham gave the message, followed by comments by President Richard Nixon. Nearly 2000 in attendance. The breakfast was followed this day and the next by a series of seminars of the theme of effective leadership.

…January 30, 1969. Presidential Prayer Breakfast. Participants included Frank Carlson, John W. McCormack, Spiro Agnew, and Edmund Muskie
(Roman Catholic). The message was given by Billy Graham, followed
by comments by President Richard Nixon

..January 30, 1969 seminar on effective leadership, comments by various people including Richard Halverson and addressed by D. Elton Trueblood [Quaker]. Washington, DC. Tape 77

…January 30, 1969 evening seminar on effective leadership, comments by various people including Richard Halverson…Tape 78

Side 2: January 31, 1969. Program following the Leadership Banquet. Elton Trueblood was the principal speaker. Tape 73

…January 30, 1969 seminar on effective leadership, comments by various people including Richard Halverson and addressed by D. Elton Trueblood. Washington, DC. Tape 79

…January 31, 1969. Program following the ICL’s Leadership Banquet, which concluded the series of seminars on effective leadership. The principal speaker was Dr. Elton Trueblood. Tape 84

…April 20, 1969. Sunday evening program at Fellowship House, Washington, DC including introductory comments by Abraham Vereide, singing and prayer and reports by Doug Coe and Fred Heyn on recent trips to Spain, Paris, and London to visit various Christian programs in those places. Tape 85

5/16/1969 Abraham Vereide died. Douglas Coe from this time on served as coordinator and leader of the movement, in as far as a person can be said to be the leader. Other important leaders were Halverson, Heyn, Senator Harold Hughes.

…May 20. 1969. Memorial Service for Dr. Abraham Vereide at the 4th Presbyterian Church in Washington, DC Richard Halverson and Milton
Vereide, among others, spoke… Tape 88

…October 23 and 24, 1969. Sessions of the ICL’s National Student Leadership Seminar. Addresses by Francis Schaeffer and Senator Mark Hatfield. Tape 100

early 1970s
Starting in the early 1970s, members of the fellowship became more interested in the needs, physical and spiritual, of the poor of the inner city and in reconciling blacks and whites. The Fellowship Foundation supported various projects to deal with social problems.

18th Annual National Prayer Breakfast.

9/10/1970, ICCL was dissolved as a corporation…Its minimal functions were performed by ICL and the various national groups in different countries continued to function autonomously. Although there were no more world conferences, many national groups held regional level meetings.

19th National Prayer Breakfast. 3000 in attendance, two million listen via
Armed Forces radio.

1000 mayoral prayer breakfasts in US, some form of the idea in seventy countries, with fifty countries having weekly meetings.

Program of the National Prayer Breakfast in Washington, DC, February 2, 1971… a message from Warren Burger, chief justice of the Supreme Court, remarks of President Nixon

Side 2: 31 minutes. Men’s Leadership Luncheon held in conjunction with the National Prayer Breakfast. Program includes a message from Billy Graham. Tape 111

February 2, 1971, program at the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Luncheon following the National Prayer Breakfast…Tape 112

February 7, 1971. Lecture by D. James Kennedy on the topic, “Christianity and Communism in the 70s,” …music by the Hawaiians,
and a speech by Marvin Watson. Tape 116

August 8, 1971. Introduction by Richard Halverson…Meeting was at the Fellowship House in Washington, DC. Tape 118

2/1/1972, 20th Annual National Prayer Breakfast.

1972 Name change to Fellowship Foundation.

After consultations among leaders of the movement, including Coe, Halverson, Senator Mark Hatfield, and others, the organization was redesigned to be even more low key and to provide a central office where many dozen (one hundred fifty in 1985) of ministries could be administered…In effect, the group adopted an even lower profile, serving as a channel of communication and a catalyst.

Its three major interests came to be developing personal relationships between leaders and encouraging them in prayer, Bible study and personal Christian growth, youth work, and service to the poor. The group continued to help set up each year’s National Prayer Breakfast, but most of its activities were done with no or very little publicity…

February 1, 1972. Seminars following the Presidential Prayer Breakfast.

Side 1: Higher education luncheon, attended by university faculty and educators. The luncheon was addressed by Richard Halverson and others. Also the beginning of the Key Women’s seminar…Tape 123

Judges from each court within Washington, DC began meeting under the chairmanship of a member of the Supreme Court.

Sometime in 1974. The Kentucky Governor’s Prayer Breakfast, addressed by Senator Harold Hughes of Iowa. Tape 133

.January 31, 1974. Program of the National Prayer Breakfast at the Washington Hilton. Program included an Old Testament reading by Supreme Court Justice William Rehnquist, New Testament reading by Speaker of the House Carl Albert, prayer for national leaders by Vice President Gerald Ford, message by Senator Harold Hughes and comments by President Nixon. Senator John Stennis presided. Tape 134

23nd Annual National Prayer Breakfast.

January 30, 1975. Program of the National Prayer Breakfast at the Washington Hilton. John R. Dellenback presided. People who spoke or read Scripture included Billy Graham, Senator Sam Nunn, and Governor Reuben Askew of Florida. The message was from congressman Albert Quie of Minnesota, followed by remarks from President Gerald Ford and a concluding prayer by Harold Hughes. Tape 138

January 30, 1975. Remarks by President Gerald Ford during the National Prayer Breakfast in Washington, DC. Tape 139

Leadership Seminar Luncheon; January 30, 1975. Congressman Graham Purcell presiding. The Honorable Harold E. Hughes was the primary speaker. Tape 140

Leadership Seminar; January 30, 1975. Congressman Al Quie, presiding. Special messages presented by Senator Mark Hatfield and W. Weaver. Tape 141

Leadership Seminar; January 30, 1975. Senator Lawton Chiles presiding. Billy Graham was the main speaker. Tape 143

June 30, 1975. Program following the Fellowship Family Supper for staff and supporters of the Fellowship Foundation. Dr. Richard C. Halverson presiding. Speakers include Mark Small, a leader of the Cheyenne people. Tape 146

Apparently a copy of the soundtrack of a television interview from stations WHO and WOC in Des Moines, Iowa about Senator Harold Hughes’ decision to resign from the Senate to become a lay minister and do work for the Fellowship Foundation…Tape 205, 30 minutes.

January 1976, recorded messages for use during prayer breakfasts held in different locations among U.S. military personnel. Speakers include President Gerald R. Ford, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld…Tape 149

January 23, 1976. Radio program Panorama, broadcast on station WTTG in Washington, DC, hosted by Maury Povich, with commentator Ms. Bonnie Angelo.

The guest on the show is correspondent and informant for the Central Intelligence Agency and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The conversation is about contacts between U.S. intelligence agencies and journalists. Chuck Colson is referred to very briefly during the interview, in reference to knowledge of a list in the Nixon White House of journalists who were intelligence informants. Tape 150

September 11, 1976. Men’s retreat, sponsored by Fellowship Foundation, at the conference center in Windy Gap, North Carolina. Side 1: Doug Coe speaks on discipleship…Tape 151

1/27/1977 25th Annual National Prayer Breakfast. James Wright, Speaker of the House, gave the message.

Side 1: Charles Colson, presiding over a seminar following the National Prayer Breakfast, Richard Lovelace on the historical background of spiritual awakenings in the United States…side 2: Panel of J. Edwin Orr, Bishop Landis, Richard Lovelace on the history of revivals. Richard Halverson was moderator. Tape 159

March 10, 1977. Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, Mayor’s Prayer Breakfast. Congressman John B. Conlan was the speaker. Tape 160

March 31, 1977. National Prayer Breakfast of Canada, including participation by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau [Roman Catholic], and a presentation by Charles Colson. Tape 161

April 15, 1977. Beach Retreat in California, addressed by Doug Coe and others… Tape 162

2/2/1978 26th National Prayer Breakfast, Message was given by Max Cleland, Administrator of Veterans Affairs.

Over eighty countries had prayer breakfasts for their national legislatures. Eight countries had annual prayer breakfasts.

February 2, 1978. Seminar following the Presidential Prayer Breakfast. Includes reports about various attendees on things going on in their lives including greetings from the House of Commons of England and a report on evangelistic efforts in the South Pacific, Jay Kesler of Youth for Christ.

Main speaker was Tony Campolo who spoke on recognizing that God is not a national deity. Washington, DC. Tape 166

February 2, 1978. Seminar following the National Prayer Breakfast, during which various people share their testimonies and reports from their individual ministries and experience. The seminar concluded with a message from Roman Catholic bishop Fulton J. Sheen. Washington, DC. Tape 167

February 2, 1978. Luncheon following the National Prayer Breakfast…Presided over by Senator Mark Hatfield. Washington, DC. Tape 177

February 2, 1978. Family Night Dinner, a time of rather informal sharing and testimonies during the series of meetings that started with the National Prayer Breakfast. Tape 178

1/18/1979 27th Annual National Prayer Breakfast, Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen.

January 18, 1979. Program of the National Prayer Breakfast in Washington, DC, Congressman Richard Schultz presiding. Includes a prayer by Billy Graham, a prayer from Senator Mark Hatfield, the message from Bishop Fulton Sheen and comments by President Jimmy Carter. Tape 179

2/7/1980 28th Annual National Prayer Breakfast. Message from Representative Guy Vander Jagt of Michigan.

February 7, 1980. Excerpts from the program of the 1980 National Prayer Breakfast. Senator Mark Hatfield presided. Includes grace by Senator Frank Carlson, prayer for national leaders by Senator Sam Nunn, comments by President Jimmy Carter and a message from Representative Guy Vander Jagt
of Michigan. Washington, D C. Tape 180

Seminar following the 1980 National Prayer Breakfast at which Tony Campolo was the main speaker, talking about the dangers of civil religion. Tape 181

2/5/1981 29th Annual National Prayer Breakfast. Message from Governor
Albert Quie of Minnesota.

February 5, 1981. Excerpts from the program of the 1981 National Prayer Breakfast. Congressman Elwood Hillis presided. Includes singing “Happy Birthday” to President Reagan, a message from Congressman Albert Quie, comments by President Reagan. Tape 182

February 5, 1981. Excerpts from the program of the 1981 National Prayer Breakfast. Congressman Elwood Hillis presided. Includes an opening prayer
by Barbara Williams, a statement of purpose by Billy Graham, Old Testament reading by Mayor of New York Edward Koch, a New Testament reading by vice president George Bush, prayer for national leaders by Senator Lawton Chiles, singing “Happy Birthday” to President Reagan, a message from Congressman Albert Quie, comments by President Reagan. Tape 183

1981. Richard Halverson speaking to a student leadership conference, apparently part of the same occasion as T185 and T186. Halverson talked about the twelve disciples and working together and being committed to each other. Discusses briefly his friendship with Douglas Coe. Tape 184

Ca. 1981. Apparently part of the same occasion as T184 and T186, a student leadership conference. Side 1: Mark Hatfield speaking about leadership; side 2: Richard Halverson speaking on demonstrating a Christian life. Tape 185

1981. Apparently part of the same occasion as T184 and T185, a student leadership conference. Side 1: Charles Colson speaking about his own testimony and showing Christ in your life. Tape 186

2/4/1982 30th Annual National Prayer Breakfast. Message from Senator Pete V. Domenici.

2/3/1983 31st National Prayer Breakfast. Message from General John Vessey Jr., chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

February 3, 1983. Sessions following the 1983 National Prayer Breakfast. Leadership Luncheon; John Stott speaking. Tape 193

1984 Representatives of one hundred nations attended the 32nd National Prayer Breakfast. Similar local prayer breakfasts were held in five hundred cities around the United States.

February 4, 1984. Program of the 1984 National Prayer Breakfast. Presided over by Senator Mark Hatfield. Includes opening prayer by Vice President Bush, comments by Congressman Charles Whitley, an Old Testament reading by Jacob Javits, New Testament reading by Elizabeth Dole, a message by Barbara Jordan and comments by President Reagan. Tape 194

February 4, 1984. Sessions following the 1984 National Prayer Breakfast. Jefferson Seminar; Albert Quie, moderator. Tape 195

February 4, 1984. Sessions following the 1984 National Prayer Breakfast. Georgetown Seminar; Martin Bostetter, moderator. Tape 196

Program of the 1985 National Prayer Breakfast. Presided over by Congressman Ralph Regula. Includes opening prayer by George Schultz, comments by Congressman Wes Watkins, an Old Testament reading by George Bush, New Testament reading by Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor,
a message by Governor George Deukmejian of California and comments by President Reagan. Tape 199

Sessions following the 1985 National Prayer Breakfast. Leadership Luncheon; Andrew Young was the speaker. Tape 200

Program of the 1986 National Prayer Breakfast. Includes statement of purpose by Billy Graham, opening prayer by the commandant of the Marine Corps, a reading from the Old Testament by Arthur Burns, message by Senator John Stennis and comments by President Ronald Reagan. Tape ends in the middle of the final song. Tape 201

Program from the 1987 National Prayer Breakfast. Includes an opening prayer by the chief of staff of the Navy, comments by Senator Paul Simon and Congressman Dan Daniels, an Old Testament reading by Vice President Bush, a New Testament reading by Coretta Scott King, prayer for national leaders by Governor John Ashcroft of Missouri, message by Elizabeth Dole and comments by President Reagan. Tape 203

1987 Elizabeth Dole, United States Secretary of Transportation

2/4/1988 36th Annual National Prayer Breakfast. Senator William L. Armstrong of Colorado gave the message; President Reagan made some remarks.

February 4, 1988. Program of the 1988 National Prayer Breakfast. Presided over by Senator Lawton Chiles. Includes a program by the Wheaton College Men’s Glee Club, opening prayer by Admiral William J. Crowl, comments from Senator Paul Trible, ambassador from Saudi Arabia Prince Bandar Ben Sauder with a reading from the Koran, music by Jim Nabors, prayer for national leaders by Secretary of the Treasury Jim Baker, message by Senator William Armstrong and comments by President Reagan. Tape 204

1/31/1991 39th Annual National Prayer Breakfast.

Fellowship House in Washington, DC, sold. The organizational center (although that is perhaps too formal a designation for a very low key presence) for the movement was at The Cedars on 24th Street in Arlington, which the Foundation had owned for several years. Wallace Haines retired and returned to the United States, although he remained active in the organization’s work.

2/3/94 42nd Annual National Prayer Breakfast. Mother Teresa of Calcutta was the speaker.

VII. Douglas Coe. Boxes 512-540.
Among the materials in this section are correspondence on most aspects of the Foundation’s work…file on the formal organization of Prison Fellowship…plans for a worldwide call to prayer including among other Presidents Jimmy Carter and Daniel Moi and Pope John Paul II.

IX. Financial Materials. Boxes 569-582. Includes audits, accountant reports, agreements and contacts, correspondence with foundations (Assisi, Lilly, Mennonite Christian Leadership, Kresage, Treagon)…Liberty Militant expenses, and stock information.

Some Photos
Harold John Ockenga Close-up of Ockenga at an ICL banquet.

Prayer Breakfast….People in the photos in this folder include Douglas Coe, Henry Ford, Henry Ford II, Henry Kissinger, Robert MacNamara, George Romney, George Schultz, John Tower, Elmo Zumwalt Jr. 1970

Presidential Prayer Breakfast 1976. Scenes from the breakfast sponsored by ICL. People in the photos include Arthur Burns, Douglas Coe, Charles Colson, Betty Ford, Gerald Ford, Billy Graham, Mark Hatfield, Harold Hughes, Henry Kissinger, Albert Quie, Elliott Richardson.

Presidential Prayer Breakfast 1981. Scenes from the breakfast sponsored by ICL. People in the photos include Barbara Bush, George Bush, Douglas Coe, Billy Graham, Richard Halverson, Nancy Reagan, Ronald Reagan.

Roy Rogers With Dale Evans at an unidentified prayer breakfast.

George Beverly Shea Singing at an unidentified prayer breakfast attended by Frank Carlson, Billy Graham and Lyndon Johnson.

Earl Warren Attending unidentified prayer breakfast.

Victor Paul Wierwille Color postcard of Wierwille at his desk at The Way International ln Knoxville, Ohio.

Young Life. Group of teenagers holding a Young Life banner.

This information is for my post:
The Real Presence in the Eucharist: Evangelization of America through Politics

The National Prayer Breakfast and the Fellowship Foundation “The Family”

The National Prayer Breakfast is a yearly event that first took place in 1953, when it was called the Presidential Prayer Breakfast. Every U.S. president since Dwight D. Eisenhower has participated in the breakfast.

The NPB is held in Washington, D.C., on the first Thursday of February, and is
a series of meetings, luncheons, and dinners that take place the week before
the breakfast. During this time, members of Congress hold private meetings
with individuals and groups, both American and international, to talk through
issues of interest.

The breakfast is attended by some 3,500 guests, including members of the U.S. Congress and Cabinet, the diplomatic corps and people from a variety of walks
of life, including international invitees from over 100 countries.

The Fellowship Foundation organizes the National Prayer Breakfast which is hosted by members of the United States Congress. The principal themes are peace and reconciliation, justice, and aid to the needy of the world.

Each year several guest speakers visit the various events connected with the National Prayer Breakfast. The Thursday morning breakfast, typically has
two very special guest speakers: the President of the United States and a
guest whose identity is kept confidential until that morning.

Some speakers at Prayer Breakfasts
1994 (42nd Annual NPB) Mother Teresa of Calcutta—Keynote speech.

2005 (53rd Annual NPB) Ambassador Tony P. Hall, U.S. Representative to the U.N. Agencies for Food and Agriculture—Keynote Speech.

2005 Ricardo Maduro, then president of Honduras, and currently Chairman of the Bank of Honduras.—Thursday lunch.

2006 (54th Annual NPB) Bono, Irish singer/songwriter and humanitarian—Keynote Speech.

In 2006, King Abdullah II of Jordan addressed the Thursday lunch.

King Abdullah II completed an advanced studies and research program at the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Jesuit Georgetown University.

In September of 2005, Abdullah’s speech at The Catholic University of America’s Columbus School of Law was entitled “Traditional Islam: The Path to Peace.” While en route to the United States, King Abdullah met with Pope Benedict XVI to build on the relations that Jordan had established with Pope John Paul II to discuss ways in which Muslims and Christians can continue to work together for peace, tolerance, and coexistence.

2007 (55th Annual NPB) Dr. Francis S. Collins, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute—Keynote Speech.

2008 (56th Annual NPB) Ward Brehm, a Minnesotan who chairs the U.S.-African Development Foundation—Keynote Speech.

History of the National Prayer Breakfast
The National Prayer Breakfast is put on by an organization called The Family, which through the years has been called, The Fellowship, The Fellowship Foundation, The International Foundation, National Committee for Christian Leadership, International Christian Leadership, the National Leadership Council, Fellowship House, the National Fellowship Council.

The National Prayer Breakfast is not the main work of The Family. It would seem the group is actually a very political group with a worldwide focus—not regional a US religious evangelical group that one might think at first. The Family is said to have no formal membership. Its relationships span from poor communities in developing countries to prominent members of the United States Congress.

The current head of the Family is Douglas Coe, named one of the 25 most influential Evangelicals in America in 2005 by Time magazine, has led the group since 1966. The Family has 20,000 members, directed by 350 leaders.

The Family was founded in Seattle in 1935 by Abraham Vereide, a Norwegian immigrant and traveling preacher who had been working with the city’s poor, and who feared that “socialist” politicians were about to take over Seattle’s municipal government…

“The Fellowship maintains a three-story, 7,914-square-foot red brick townhouse at 133 C Street in Washington, D.C., near the United States Capitol. The townhouse used to be a convent. As many as six members of Congress, Democratic and Republican, live here while in Washington.

In 2003, these men paid $600 a month to live there:
U.S. Rep. Zach Wamp, Baptist, R-Tenn.;
U.S. Rep. Bart Stupak,, Roman Catholic, D-Mich.;
U.S. Rep. Jim DeMint, Presbyterian, R-S.C.;
U.S. Rep. Mike Doyle, Roman Catholic, D-Pa.;
U.S. Sen John Ensign, Foursquare Gospel, R-Nev.;
U.S. SenSam Brownback, Roman Catholic, R-Kan.

The house, which was valued at $1.1 million in 2003, is owned by a Fellowship sister organization called the C Street Center. IRS records show that the Center received more than $145,000 in grants from the Fellowship between 1997 and 2000.”—Lara Jakes Jordan, “Fellowship finances townhouse where 6 congressmen live”, Associated Press, April 20, 2003

Books, articles, information links
The Family: The Secret Fundamentalism at the Heart of American Power Harper Collins, 2008, Jeff Sharlet
From the bookjacket:
They are the Family—fundamentalism’s avant-garde, waging spiritual war in the halls of American power and around the globe. They consider themselves the new chosen, congressmen, generals, and foreign dictators who meet in confidential cells, to pray and plan for a “leadership led by God,” to be won not by force but through “quiet diplomacy.”

“…Sharlet follows the story back to Abraham Vereide, an immigrant preacher who in 1935 organized a small group of businessmen sympathetic to European fascism, fusing the Far Right with his own polite but authoritarian faith. From that core, Vereide built an international network of fundamentalists who spoke the language of establishment power, a “family” that thrives to this day. In public, they host prayer breakfasts; in private they preach a gospel of “biblical capitalism,” military might, and American empire. Citing Hitler, Lenin, and Mao, the Family’s leader declares, “We work with power where we can, build new power where we can’t.”

SourceWatch: The Fellowship
By 1985, The Fellowship had 150 individual ministries beneath it. This model continues to this day with countless ministries coming into and going out of existence depending upon the current needs of the organization and the initiatives it wishes to fund.

As Sharlet writes in his Harper’s piece, The Foundation believes that its mobile “cell” structure, which it likens to those organized by Lenin, Bin Laden, and Hitler, makes it far more efficient than a hierarchical organization. And just like Enron’s many shell corporations, their cell structure has the additional advantage of being able to move money around very quickly and in a way that makes it difficult to track or audit.

Imperial Jesus: ‘Family author Jeff Sharlet on the secret history of the other Christian right

Following up on “The Family”: Six Questions for Jeff Sharlet

This information is for my post:
The Real Presence in the Eucharist: Evangelization of America through Politics